Another way to find this information is to do a simple Google search. For example, one could place the following phrase into Google Search:  “(product name) + affiliate program”. (Replace “product name” with the name of the product you are promoting.) There is an interesting chrome addon called Affilitizer is available which makes this process easy.
To that end, I am now looking at moving my budding domain before my first month on WA expires (sunk cost, oh well) and am thinking WP will be my best choice, price-wise; not being rich but still better than $360/year just to be part of a “community” of cheerleaders. I have my niche, I want to do affiliate marketing as well as a blog, and potentially an unrelated blog. I will find my own training and education in due time for a lot less $$$…I know a lot of people.
I have a question: I need to first register a domain name and on WA it is $13.99 for basic free membership. I’m not going to start with premium until after a lot of tutorials or researching or discovering the site and other sources. I feel that this hesitancy has always been required but a great impediment to my decisions. I’m too play it safe and I don’t know what to do to initiate a good quality blog or endeavor. I’m actually my worst enemy in many things.
Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications; however, the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities, and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing.[41]
I have a couple lessons to finish with the bootcamp, and what I’m thinking about doing if I even think about continuing to blog is create a site not around WA but to help others figure out how to make money online, wordpress, how to create a website, select a hosting platform like Hostgator which I had previous experience with before WA, clickfunnels and so forth. But yeah, it’s been real, and an eye opening experience. I’ll likely be transferring my domains back to Hostgator here.

The problem with WA is… they don’t put their members through any sort of review process before they let them set off into the world of internet marketing. Sure, they do provide the resources and coaching needed to make it in IM, but they also do a good job of making it sound so easy. I feel like a lot of folks sign up thinking it’s going to be a convenient way to generate income once they know how to post a blog, install a few plugins in WordPress, and get their affiliate links added.


Another way to find this information is to do a simple Google search. For example, one could place the following phrase into Google Search:  “(product name) + affiliate program”. (Replace “product name” with the name of the product you are promoting.) There is an interesting chrome addon called Affilitizer is available which makes this process easy.

I set out to be one of the few that would try and promote WA in a unique way, but after a few months there I began to grow more disillusioned with the product and found that it would be harder to sell because I am not going to bullshit anyone. I think it’s a decent value as long as someone enters into their membership with realistic expectations and are not in a period of financial desperation. They do provide a pretty comprehensive nuts and bolts breakdown of how to do WordPress and basic IM practices, but I think anyone who is serious about IM will find that they will quickly outrgow WA within their first year.


Another one of the highest paying and most popular dating affiliate programs is eHarmony, which is based on the actual earnings that can be made from each referred sale. Up to $188 can be made from a single sale. In general, the members at eHarmony are typically looking to find serious long term relationships, so many of them are willing to pay extra to find similar people.
VigLink works a bit differently than other affiliate programs in that it is specifically designed for bloggers. Instead of affiliates picking and choosing which merchants to work with, VigLink uses dynamic links that automatically change to work with merchants that VigLink has determined are offering the highest conversation rates and/or commissions at any given moment.

Professionally I have been a practicing primary health care provider for just about 30 years. The one thing I will not do as a WA member is review a healthcare-oriented website done by individuals who are not professionals. I recognize the knowledge I have acquired over 40 years is so ingrained in me I’d find it hard to sort out “common” knowledge from “trained” knowledge; hence, I believe my review of their websites would be unfair. Sort of like a judge who has personal knowledge of a matter, reclusing themselves from hearing a case. Now if someone asked me, in my professional status, to critique a healthcare website…that’s a horse of a different color. My educational background makes me very confident in my professional life BUT in the area of website development, not so much.


Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]

Anyway, I’m thankful that I didn’t spend too much time on creating sites there and that I didn’t put any significant content before deciding to leave. I will now peruse some free training and then try two courses that are a bit pricey but seem more useful, The Authority Site System (from the Authority Hacker site), and SEO Affiliate Domination. I’m just starting to read the SEO Affiliate Domination free crash course, and as far as Authority Hacker is concerned, I can say that I got far more useful information in their free webinar alone that in all five WA courses combined. I first learned about these courses on Jeremy Harrison’s Hustle Life site. (He also says that WA is good but not great.) If anyone has tried the two aforementioned courses, I’d like to hear about it.
My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 5 years building money making blogs. After growing tired of the 9-5, commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.
The thing that I really like about WA is that even though I feel I have some good experience now (not an expert yet!), I realize that I can get help from someone with more skills and knowledge than I have at any time. There are experts within WA, many with MUCH more experience than I have that I lean on for support and to advance my own personal skills.
your trying to get honest signups with a deceptive fake landing page.I’m sure Kyle and Carson would be real impressed since one of their main guidelines is to help people with their problems. Truth and honesty i would assume are looked upon as a lower level tactic for gaining peoples trust.Is it safe to assume that this is the way they promote Wealthy Affiliate? I’m just curious if that’s part of the training that the Wealthy Affiliate Platform is built on .I mean if the purpose of Wealthy Affiliates training is to entice with and offer from a fake review page.Then hell just take em right from the landing page directly to the sales page since your already lying to them anyway why not see if we can’t sell em something else.Seems like if were not helping them solve a problem we may as well milk as much money as we can can because as soon as they figure out we just conned em. I’m sure they will hurry back to buy more junk.
A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[32] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.
You can use affiliate links after the fact. You don’t have to decide upon building a WordPress site that you’re going to optimize it with Amazon affiliate links. You can decide down the road that you want to give affiliate marketing a try and, consequently, revisit old content, embed affiliate links within it, and start generating revenue that way--especially if your old content is finally starting to take off.
Those are certainly ways in which you can get traffic to your website. Within the training at Wealthy Affiliate you are going to learn a broad range of traffic techniques, from SEO (which is the core training) where you are going to learn how to get search engines like Google, Yahoo and Bing to love your websites. This includes getting rankings in Youtube/Vimeo if you are vlogger.
In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[10] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[11] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[12]

Affiliate marketing is an ideal solution for those looking to gain control of their own income by focusing on performance-based revenue options. Working in tandem with a seller, a motivated affiliate marketer will be able to achieve a passive income from the comfort of their home without worrying about producing their own product or service. Although the success of the job does depend on the affiliate’s marketing skills, it can prove to be an effective way to meet your income goals as either a primary career or a profitable second job.
So far so good. No way? What a shame. I’m wondering if these “experts” even are aware of checking their own plugins, not to say they have the Alexa widget themselves but it goes to show that they’ll say anything to please people. There are people with knowledge at WA but sometimes I wonder what and why some of the responses to people are so vague or so general, while others don’t make complete sense at all. I’ve had my fair share of people replying with off centered comments and they normalize everything with no real answers. It’s bizzare. So much shiny object syndromes.

I am interested in promoting member-to-member opportunities. Not affiliate marketing. I have a website that generates leads each time I place ads. I pay for these ads. Does WA show how to generate traffic to other types of sites such as member-to-member sites? Many affiliate opportunities I have seen only offer $19 to perhaps $80 per sale. Member-to-member opportunities earn $250 – $1,000 per sale. Since it is just as easy to make a $19 sale as it is to make a $1,000 sale, I prefer to get paid $1,000 instead of $19 or so. My capture page is below. I am looking to generate leads at a lower cost. Thank you.
This is the bait-and-switch that Wealthy Affiliate pulls on new members. It is called WEALTHY Affiliate, wealthy being a synonym of RICH. So, everyone who signs up is indeed hoping to be shown how to make a lot of money, then they get told: sorry, don’t expect to get rich any time soon. It’s kind of like signing up to Weight Watchers and then being told, “It’s going to take you ages to lose weight. You’ll probably stay overweight for a long time. But since you’re here, why don’t you pass the time by chatting to the other overweight people.”
Bad product picks could hurt your brand. Chances are good that if you’re including an affiliate link in your content, then you’re willing to put your full support behind the product. However, if the reputation of that product should sour with the public and you fail to catch it, that recommendation of an untrustworthy product could hurt your brand.

Shopify is probably the most popular e-commerce solutions provider out there, but because there are so many products and options, newcomers can easily get confused. If you believe your audience has products to sell and could benefit from Shopify’s products and are able to elucidate the benefits of signing up for Shopify, you can definitely earn some big money with their affiliate program.

One great way to get ideas for related products to promote is to look at the stats/reports that Amazon gives you to see which products readers are buying. After a while you’ll start to notice that they’re not only buying the products you directly promote but other products as well. Some will be completely irrelevant to your niche – but many times trends will emerge that could signal other products that it might be worth promoting.


Premium Membership includes unlimited live chat and private messaging with Kyle, Carson and any other members within community. You also get access to all phases of the Wealthy Affiliate boot camp, as well as additional templates and tools to build your website. With the Premium Membership, you can choose Wealthy Affiliate as your niche, which has a very rewarding commission structure and additional training.
Speaking about writing content, It does some days get hard to hold back from writing on my site, and that’s mainly due to the time and hours I built up to the point where it almost feels in a way “natural”. And everytime I tell myself to just do it, I have to remind myself it’s going to bring me right back around to where I started. Right now, I’m actually trying out an affiliate program with Fueledleads. I want to see how far I can get with them. Some passive income is better than no passive income.
You can build greater trust with visitors. When affiliate links are used properly, you’ll build even more trust with visitors. This means always directing them to Amazon products that are relevant to the topic at hand. Conversely, any attempts to deceive by pushing them to unrelated links or to untrustworthy products could hurt trust (and get you banned by Amazon), so be careful.

I’ve traded my time for money for about the last 10-12 months copyrighting, content marketing, free traffic methods, commenting, finding that community and what not, and now I’m starting to put in more money in front of time by using Ads, leveraging CPA offers, and then fishing more in Facebook Ads, Google, Bing, Instagram, etc. I’ve already made my awareness on Facebook Ads, and now I’m adding more intent by using Google Ads. So,I’m gathering information, pixels to retarget later. Hopefully it gets me somewhere.


Great advice here. The typical idea of writing reviews of bicycle pedals and expecting someone to follow your link in order to buy a pair is dead. Now if you are actually a cyclists, and you know something about all the different types of pedals, and why different types solve different cycling problems, then hey, welcome to the world of providing useful content.
Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.
Hi Amol, You can’t really expect to make it as an affiliate without a blog, e.g., content strategy. You don’t necessarily need to ‘blog’, but you would need to continually add new content – whether it be evergreen content, product pages with detailed descriptions, etc. WA basically attempts to show you how to manage a WordPress site, how to get it ranked and options for monetizing it.
If someone cancels an order it won’t disappear from the Orders report, it’ll just never appear under Earnings because the item never shipped. Bear in mind that some items take a long time to ship, or may be temporarily out of stock. It could also be the customer asked for the complete order to be shipped at the same time, which would delay earnings if all ten products are from the same customer order.
No matter how good your marketing skills are, you’ll make less money on a bad product than you will on a valuable one. Take the time to study the demand for a product before promoting it. Make sure to research the seller with care before teaming up. Your time is worth a lot, and you want to be sure you’re spending it on a product that is profitable and a seller you can believe in.
LinkConnector has struggled to stand out from the pack but nonetheless has managed to sign some exclusive deals with big name brands, including Writer’s Digest, the Disney Store, Ironman, Hats.com, and Everly. Their strictly controlled screening process for both merchants/advertisers and affiliates/publishers means that you can always rely on the quality of products on offer.
I didn’t realize there was a limit until a few years back when I hit the maximum. I wish Amazon would increase it! To be honest, I find their tracking system pretty messy and think it needs an overhaul however, it is great for testing what works and what doesn’t. Most of what I’ve written about in other tips in these articles was learned through tracking.
You should also make sure you aren't competing with your own affiliates for eyeballs. Any marketing channels you're using, such as search engines, content sites or e-mail lists, should be off limits to your affiliates. Put marketing restrictions into your affiliate agreement and notify partners immediately. It's your program--you set the rules. Or, if you prefer, you can let your affiliates run the majority of your internet marketing.
I had a niche I was passionate about for one of my websites & the other was through boot camp (which focuses on promotion of WA). I was on the WA every day for months putting in work. When I took a break, what I described in my previous comment, had happened. What if I hadn’t backed my work up? It would have been lost. I do not want somebody else to experience this.

I am new to this website and the funny thing is that l was looking for an objective analysis on starting an Amazon affiliate site. Your review on this issue is the BEST that i have ever seen in the last 3 years. This article was a joy to read. It was detailed, honest and very hard hitting especially when you are trying to get readers to understand that they MUST diversify their traffic sources and STOP relying on getting to first page on Google. As a result of reading your article l am changing my digital marketing services, affiliate marketing and , e-commerce strategy. I look forward to hearing new and innovative ideas from you on internet marketing. Keep up the great work!!! 

The concept of affiliate marketing on the Internet was conceived of, put into practice and patented by William J. Tobin, the founder of PC Flowers & Gifts. Launched on the Prodigy Network in 1989, PC Flowers & Gifts remained on the service until 1996. By 1993, PC Flowers & Gifts generated sales in excess of $6 million per year on the Prodigy service. In 1998, PC Flowers and Gifts developed the business model of paying a commission on sales to the Prodigy Network.[8][9]
Conventionally when we looked to start a business within the offline world, we could expect to spend $10,000’s just to get our foot in the door (and that is without any marketing).  You can get absolutely EVERYTHING you need to create and manage your business from scratch…no experience necessary for $359 per year ($29 per month) at Wealthy Affiliate.
I’ve traded my time for money for about the last 10-12 months copyrighting, content marketing, free traffic methods, commenting, finding that community and what not, and now I’m starting to put in more money in front of time by using Ads, leveraging CPA offers, and then fishing more in Facebook Ads, Google, Bing, Instagram, etc. I’ve already made my awareness on Facebook Ads, and now I’m adding more intent by using Google Ads. So,I’m gathering information, pixels to retarget later. Hopefully it gets me somewhere.

You can use affiliate links after the fact. You don’t have to decide upon building a WordPress site that you’re going to optimize it with Amazon affiliate links. You can decide down the road that you want to give affiliate marketing a try and, consequently, revisit old content, embed affiliate links within it, and start generating revenue that way--especially if your old content is finally starting to take off.
Before you promote your site, you want to have some substantial content there. Write several product reviews. Have at least two to three in each category you've created. You may also want to create categories for articles, news, and commentary about your topic. The more content your site has, the better. And the great thing is that while you're writing all this, the search engines are getting notified automatically, assuming you turned on the necessary notifications.

There is no shortage of products you’ll be able to promote. You’ll have the ability to pick and choose products that you personally believe in, so make sure that your campaigns center around truly valuable products that consumers will enjoy. You’ll achieve an impressive conversion rate while simultaneously establishing the reliability of your personal brand.
They tell you that the first step in the process is to choose a niche. In my opinion, this should be pretty easy for you determine before you even decide to get started. If not, then internet marketing may not be for you. The reason I say this is due to the amount of effort required to build a profitable business from scratch. If you can’t think of one single thing that excites or interests you, then you are going to have an uphill struggle if you plan to make a go of it in affiliate marketing.
When Wealthy Affiliate first started in 2005, it was a list of hot keywords for those wishing to make money by promoting affiliate links on Google Adwords. That was actually a fast (but risky) way to make money. So, if you had money to invest up front, it was indeed possible to get rich quickly. And that’s why Kyle and Carson called their website Wealthy Affiliate. They were showing people how to get rich through affiliate marketing. The clue is the name.
Hello Ray, DON’T leave your domain with Wealthy Affiliate. It’s not a good idea to have your host be your domain manager as well – especially those guys. You want to maintain full control over your domain and it’s best to use a dedicated registrar for this purpose. A few I would recommend are: Google Domains ($12/year and free privacy), NameCheap (free privacy), and Hover (little more expensive but the best domain management interface out there). You’ll find that you’ll likely switch services from time to time if you stick with IM, and it’s a huge benefit to not have all of your eggs in one basket.
It seams that owning a membership site is the best policy for making any real money online ,this way you are more or less guaranteed a monthly and even an annual income. All of the top people in affiliate marketing have used this method, and are getting quite rich using it. These people did not get rich by merely applying the affiliate marketing strategy that they are offering to their members, which shows that you will not get rich by what they are offering to you.

MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.

Adam Enfroy is the Sr. Digital Marketing Manager at BigCommerce. With 10+ years of experience in digital marketing, ecommerce, SEO, web development, and selling online courses, he is passionate about leveraging the right strategic partnerships, content, and software to scale digital growth. Adam lives in Austin, TX and writes about building your online influence, future ways to make money online, affiliate marketing strategies, and how to make money blogging at adamenfroy.com.

I have found out that even when you actually leave Wealthy affiliate your account is never erased. Unlike other hosting companies when you cancel your subscription with them you are erased from the system. For some reason W A wants to show that it never actually loses members, but gives the impression that it is continually growing in membership. I can only assume that the majority of the members that are actually active are the hard core long time followers, and a large proportion of the membership is empty unused accounts that never get erased. At present W A boasts over 1.4 million members but what is the real membership number?


StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.
Legitimacy. If you are searching online for a way to make “quick money” you will end up sorting through numerous scams. Between upfront scams and up-sells down the road, it is extremely difficult to find a legitimate online business opportunity. Wealthy Affiliate is a transparent, SCAM-FREE program that provides all the tools you need to be successful, without up-sells.
Yep, I agree with what Anusuya Choudhury said. Many people are looking for easy $$$$ and fall for the promise to make lots of money. But can you blame WA for that? They explicitly tell everywhere in the training that you have to work hard to achieve any success. The sky is a limit. And that limit is you. So, you don’t have to give a negative review just because someone did not hand you everything on the plate without hard work. You can’t just be so negative because your level of expertise is high and WA couldn’t give you what you were looking for. Support is amazing there. Not everyone is a tech like you. But they can start and learn from 0 on WA platform. Writers, cooks, motivational speakers – they all can surpass you and generate tones of money just following their passion. You are affiliate yourself. So, it doesn’t matter where you get your knowledge as long as it works for you.
Yep, I agree with what Anusuya Choudhury said. Many people are looking for easy $$$$ and fall for the promise to make lots of money. But can you blame WA for that? They explicitly tell everywhere in the training that you have to work hard to achieve any success. The sky is a limit. And that limit is you. So, you don’t have to give a negative review just because someone did not hand you everything on the plate without hard work. You can’t just be so negative because your level of expertise is high and WA couldn’t give you what you were looking for. Support is amazing there. Not everyone is a tech like you. But they can start and learn from 0 on WA platform. Writers, cooks, motivational speakers – they all can surpass you and generate tones of money just following their passion. You are affiliate yourself. So, it doesn’t matter where you get your knowledge as long as it works for you.
You may find the odd negative review out there from a “competitor” or someone promoting a competing product. That happens. There are also many frustrated business owners in the industry that are offering low quality products, that get frustrated that they cannot compete with the services offer at Wealthy Affiliate. What they offer within their premium membership for $359 per year, there are companies charging $10,000’s for FAR LESS.
Hey Malcolm, Why don’t you ask this, ” I an considering going premium and was told if I wanted to leave wa I would have 30 days after cancelling to move my website but I have found several people online who say they cancelled and wa immediately blocked their access to download plugins necessary to move their site. These people said they had to pay for a month of premium to actually get access to move their sites and their emails to kyle and carson were ignored. What is the exact policy on this?”
Free Training Across The Web – Believe it or not, most of the training I’ve received over the years are sources I’ve found for free all over the web. I’ve shared a LOT of that info with you on this very website through my nearly 500 blog posts (to date). However, you should also check out sources such as YouTube. It’s true, places such as YouTube are filled with scammers and spammers, but mixed within those are some gems. For example, you can look up keynote speeches on affiliate marketing from various conferences, such as Affiliate Summit speakers. Using free content from around the web is hard to sort out and make sense of, so it’s best to use a service like Wealthy Affiliate because you are able to learn the things you need to learn, in the order you need to learn them, without all the distractions. However, as you progress, you may need to learn something specific, at which point you can go to free sources across the web to learn as you need it.
If you don’t like to write, do not sign up for Wealthy Affiliate. The business model that Wealthy Affiliate teaches revolves around producing lots of great content to attract website visitors from search engines. This means, as you build your business, you’ll be writing just about every day, just like I do on this very blog you’re reading. I’ve already written almost 4,000 words in this one post alone, and it’s not even close to being finished yet. Affiliate marketing takes work, and if you are unable or unwilling to write a TON of content, don’t even consider getting into this. Being a writer will end up being your main job.
Now that you’ve got the basics down, we’ll dig into the strategies and tactics that will help you accelerate your affiliate marketing success. We’ll revisit some of the crucial basics, go over the must-dos of affiliate marketing, explore different promotion types, dig into some advanced affiliate marketing strategies, and uncover ways to stay on track when the going gets tough.
I didn’t realize there was a limit until a few years back when I hit the maximum. I wish Amazon would increase it! To be honest, I find their tracking system pretty messy and think it needs an overhaul however, it is great for testing what works and what doesn’t. Most of what I’ve written about in other tips in these articles was learned through tracking.
This is the standard affiliate marketing structure. In this program, the merchant pays the affiliate a percentage of the sale price of the product after the consumer purchases the product as a result of the affiliate’s marketing strategies. In other words, the affiliate must actually get the investor to invest in the product before they are compensated.
Earning income via Target affiliates, however, requires a bit of work. Cookies expire in just seven days, and commissions can be as low as just one percent, so you’ll need to be operating a high-traffic website in order to make serious cash with this program. But with Target’s much-beloved brand reputation and vast catalog, relevant product links can be a big earner for established influencers.

Pick an Interest. You must first choose a niche for your business. This could be anything from cars and electronics, to computers, clothing and food. It is best to select something that interests you and there are many highly profitable niches to choose from. But if you have no ideas on what you like and how to choose a niche Wealthy Affiliate will give you great ideas to pick any profitable niche which still has room to get in to. 
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